Chapter 7 - Practice/ Application
This chapter talked about providing hands-on practice with new knowledge. this would be the output stage that shows that students actually received comprehensible input. Students need manipulatives and hands -on materials to aid in demonstrating understanding of new material. The manipulatives and/ or materials need to be used in conjunction with activities designed to apply both content and language knowledge. These activities need to touch all four of the language domains - reading, writing, listening, and speaking. The more students get to practice what they have learned, the deeper their understanding of both content and language will become. Practice, practice, practice. This does need to be done connected to the last chapter, whole group, small group, partner and individually.
Chapter 8 - Lesson Delivery
Teachers need to think not only about content objectives, but also about language objectives for students in the class. In today's schools, most students are grouped by grade levels and that is where the content objectives come from. However, not all students, even native speakers are going to be at the same level as far as language development is concerned. Teachers should make sure they are writing lessons that will maximize student based on current proficiency levels of those students. This can be done through grouping or modification of pace of input fore students so that all students can achieve success. Teachers also need to address the learning styles of students and try to plan activities that engage all learners. This is probably one of the toughest things to do, depending on the size of your class, as you could have lots of individual needs to try to meet within one class period.
Chapter 9 - Review/ Assessment
Review needs to be continuous and ongoing. Students need to use new vocabulary at least 20 times before it is committed to memory. But vocabulary should not be learned in isolation. This makes me think back to the chapter on building background. We need to link new learning to background experiences and bridge with previous learning. In doing this vocabulary is taught in a meaningful way. The more practice and application they get with that knowledge, allows them to continually review and challenge their thinking process and to use higher order thinking skills. Regular feedback both from the teacher and other students will aid children in understanding how well they are learning both language and content. Assessment should also be ongoing and include both formative and summative assessments.